On :August 10, 2017
1. Do some Internet research on Chevron’s use of seismic imaging technology. Briefly explain how it works and how it has helped Chevron discover new oil and gas reservoirs.
Seismic Imaging Technology is also called as Reflection Seismology, which was an exploring method to estimate the estimate the seismic characters of the Earths sub surface. This seismic imaging technology always calculates the energy waves of the Coal, Oil, Gas and Geothermal exploration. This will help all the geologists of mapping the rocks in under the earth’s surface. Geologists always collects the data of the mapped structures which contains minerals, hydrocarbons. Seismic imaging technology will send the energy waves which was created from sound waves all these waves are recorded that how long they are been reflected the sound waves that takes the time to receive the microphone. This will give the basic imagination of the geologists to find the rock surfaces.
“They’re basically electronic ears that record a signal when they hear the sound come back. The signal that we get out of them looks like this. It looks like a squiggle. If we put thousands of these squiggles together in a line, then we have a slice or a cross section of the earth that we can actually see structures in.”
After Getting all the Seismic technology data information company used to appoint Highly Qualified Geologists, engineers, technicians to find the better chances of knowing the full data about the rock reservoir. When we get the full data from the appointed officers, company plans for digging the reservoir, it has only 50% of the chances in finding the natural gases.
Chevrons Seismic Imaging Technology has helped the company’s exploration to 74% in 2012. This helps all the chevron scientists to see the under earth in very clear compared to the past. This Seismic technology helped the company to find the natural resources very easily in highly mountains in us and Gulf of Mexico. All the 3D images given by the seismic technology was so accurate, super computers where used to reduce the costs. In 1982 chevron was the first company to use the Seismic Imaging Technology.
2. Do some Internet research on security vulnerabilities associated with SCADA and digital industrial control systems. Summarize the major security concerns associated with these systems and steps than can be taken to enhance their security.
A Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA), SCADA system plays a significant role in all critical infrastructure controlled systems. SCADA system was introduced when control systems where introduced. In the olden days SCADA uses the data acquisition with the help of panels of meters, strip chart recorders and chats, but now all major SCADA system was controlled by the keys. All data on factories and power generation facilities are been still supervised by these control devices. modern manufacturing, mining, natural gases, nuclear products and security systems are being used this modern SCADA systems. These are combined with Telemetry and data acquisition. Telemetry systems are used to connect systems and equipment which are separated for long distances. It was used to send commands and programs and receives the monitoring information in the remote areas with the help of wire or radio.
SCADA used in collecting all the information from the central sites and makes all necessary actions that to be displayed the same information the operator computer. All the instruments in this field can able to sense density, temperature, volume, power levels and flow rate.
The Goal in creating SCADA was the control systems that to solve all the tasks to easily. SCADA security and networks where linked with other networks so that no attackers can able to access them, this leads to get scope. If this network is connected to other networks that will threat that connected is open for the attackers, this makes SCADA system vulnerable. SCADA communication protocols where increasing because this was not as costly. COTS Hard ware and software are to develop in SCADA for lack of its security. COTS system was cheaper and this will reduce the design time about the overall security for the end of the product.
3. Discuss the pros and cons of moving enterprise-wide applications that have traditionally been supported on premises to the cloud. Cloud migration can always be complex for large scale companies and the small-scale companies. Because of all these complexities we always need a plan to move our business infrastructure to the cloud. We always need to understand that what business infrastructure that we need to migrate to cloud.
There are three categories that all companies will fall into this,
♦ Purely on- premise
♦ Cloud on- premise
♦ Cloud- to -cloud
If we have an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) we can complete cloud migration. Increasing of business abilities, efficiency which enabled for the faster services with low of cost.
Information Technology costs:
This was the most expensive reason that all companies make their steps to move the clouds. This was not only because of the lower costs it can also save the time with servers and workstations it supports and upgrades.
Access for desktop anywhere any device:
If we travel frequently and have our remote employees to work, can access with an iPad and a laptop in the house. This will give all the access for the devices to work.
Disaster recovery and backups are automated:
All data’s running on the companies can get vulnerable to several threats like virus, human errors, natural disasters, fire accidents etc… in these cases, if the business server was linked with cloud, we can buy new devices and can link our existing cloud to that devices and can back up our data in the same day.
For the larger companies, we have coolers for the room to cool the hot servers which are running for 24/7/365. For the smaller companies’ power savings will been to measure.
While working on the cloud servers with a secondary internet connection there is a chance that we will lack into internet speed. There is some hybrid cloud solution that which can negate this risk.
All companies migrating to cloud should always check that how their data is being stored, how are all can access their data. Major cloud systems have already updated their servers and services to maintain great security for the data.
There is some application which will not work on the clouds like desktop accounting, auto cad, etc… they all requires intensive computing resources that will not work in the because of internet speeds.
Compliance issues are major in the cloud.
4. Do some Internet research on identify management and single sign on systems. Briefly explain how these works and why they are important in business intranets and Extra-nets.
Single sign on system is a mechanism which was operated with a single action for the authorized used to login and opens all the related applications. All risks are reduced for the administrators to manage users. This leads to the user productivity by authenticating to login for the single time session. This will help to reduce the time for users.
Single sign on (SSO) systems where deployed into three categories.
♦ Internet SSO
♦ Intranet SSO
♦ Extranet SSO
Internet SSO are also known as web SSO. This was mainly based with the browsers, which was providing single login to the applications which are been deployed on the web servers
Intranet SSO are also known as Enterprise Sign on System(ESSO). This allows all the multiple users which are connected to the same enterprise. This was mainly designed to reduce the time for the users in entering their ID and Password for each time they login, into multiple applications. This will automatically act as a login for the users and a password generator where automatic logins are not possible. Token was giver for every device that user is using, and that token will proceed with all the authentications.
Extranet SSO are also known as Multi – Domain SSO. This allows in connecting multiple domains with the same networks to all the business partners. This will help the user to login into the network and can access into another business partner networks, in this the user has to login with the different user credentials.
Many users are using the same username and the passwords for the different applications they are using. SSO will help the users to get access to different enterprise with the same login.
This will always strengthen security for the business. All the major advanced SSO systems provides Fingerprint access, Face Recognition, Voice recognition this will help many users to hold their data securely. This will mainly help to improve the business productivity. Business to Business collaborations are always tightened. Help desk costs are driven down from SSO.
5. Why is it increasing most important for a CIO or IT executive who oversees geographically distributed enterprise networks to be business literate?
The role of CIO has become more prominent in delivering the services for the people around the world in the demand of the global digitized world. There are requirements to move from a managing level to an executive position. It is more important for CIO or it executive to be more knowledgeably enough about the company’s projects and they can able to manage the company. CIO take the decisions with much confidence.
Private sector organization are making profits by appointed CIO to their companies, while in the public-sector companies are still recognizing the new executive position. They always should insight the experiences of all other executives who has come up with same problems and opportunities. CIO has always need to access the new opportunities tools and techniques for developing their business in the IT market. Even in the government enterprise with different mission and visions and goals CIO is in a position. Becoming a CIO is like from a technology steward to Business leader. At final, everyone goal is the increase of the shareholder value.
Role of the CIO:
♦ Formulating Organization goals
♦ Experience in establishing IT services and security policies
♦ Ability to recruit Information Technology Staff
♦ IT leadership or executive roles
♦ Soft Skills (honesty, empathy, integrity)
♦ Business prospective, motivation.
♦ According to author (Rachel Lawry Accenture Australia, Dianne Waddell . . .
♦ Deakin University, Mohini Singh RMIT University)
“According to Authors Rachel Lawry survey TechTarget’s 2014 IT Salary and Careers Survey, the average base salary in the United States and Canada for a senior-level IT executive that year was $143,942 with an average total compensation (salary combined with bonuses) of $177,229.”
All the federal CIO’s competencies should always lead to the business management, for being at the top of the IT industry companies should always balance the score cards. Research, development, finances, marketing are clearly monitored. CIO’s finally major role is hiring talents.